Hierarchy Of Data
Hierarchy is a series of ordered groupings in a system, beginning with the smallest unit to the largest.

Data is organized in a hierarchy that begins with the smallest to the largest unit of data, as it progresses up the hierarchy.

Together, bits, bytes, fields, records, files and database form the hierarchy of data.

The bit is represented by 0 for OFF or 1 for ON. It is a binary digit. It is the smallest unit of data the computer can store in a database.
A byte is a collection of bits. Each byte consists of eight bits. Each byte represents a character.
For example : The letter S is made up of 0101 0011
A field is a unit of data consisting of one or more characters (bytes).
A field is the smallest unit of meaningful information in the database. Each field has a field name.
The field name describes the data that should be entered into the field, such as StudentID (Student ID), Name, Address and MyKad Number.
A record is a collection of related fields.
Example : Each record stores data about a students.
For example, a student record is a collection of fields about a student.

A file is a collection of related records. For example, a student file is a collection of students’ records

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