FORM 4 Chapter 1

               FORM 4
          Chapter 1
          Lesson 1
             What is ICT?
             *refer to exercise 1
  • 3500 BC, the Sumerians developed cuneiform writing
  • 1500 BC, the Phoenicians developed the alphabet.
  • 105 BC, Tsai Lun of China invented paper
  • 1454, the first printing began with the creation of a printing machine.
  • 1793, the telegraph line was invented.
  • 1876, the first telephone was introduced
  • 1925, television was made known to public.

  • 1941, the computer was created.
  • 1958, the photocopier machine was introduced.
  • 1963, the communication satellite was introduced
  • 1969, the first internet known as ARPANET was introduced.

    Lesson 2
    Evolution of Computers
    Computer Generation
  • 1.0 Generasi Komputer

    Terdapat 5 generasi komputer
     1.Generasi Pertama (1942-1959)
    -menggunakan tiub-tiub vakum sebagai komponen utama
     komputer untuk memproses dan menyimpan maklumat.
    -saiz seperti mentol kecil.
    -cepat panas dan mudah terbakar.
    -beribu-ribu tiub vakum diperlukan pada satu masa.
    -fungsi komputer ini untuk membantu ahli sains menyelesaikan
     masalah pengiraan trajektori dengan pantas dan tepat.
    -contoh: ENIAC dan EDSAC

    2. Generasi Kedua (1959-1964)
    -menggunakan transistor dan diod
    -guna tenaga yang kurang dan kurang panas
    -lebih pantas dan berkuasa.
    -contoh: IBM, UNIVAC

    3. Generasi Ketiga (1964-1970)
                -menggunakan teknologi litar bersepadu yang terdiri daripada
    beribu-ribu transistor . (cip silikon)
    -komputer lebih praktikal kerana saiz lebih kecil, harga murah.

  • 4. Generasi Keempat (1971-1990)

                - wujudnya cip silikon yang lebih maju, yang mengandungi
                Sehingga beratus ribu komponen transistor di dalamnya (Very
                Large scale integration,VSLI)
                -pemprosesan dapat dilakukan lebih pantas (berjuta bit sesaat)
                -pengenalan kepada CD ROM (read only memory)
                Cth: IBM 370, Apple I dan Apple II,
  • 5. Generasi Kelima (1991 dan masa depan)
                -mempunyai lebih banyak unit pemproses yang berfungsi
                Serentak, ingatan lebih besar, menyelesaikan lebih banyak
                Masalah yang kompleks
                -dijangka mempunyai kepandaian tersendiri; mengesan
                Keadaan sekeliling melalui penglihatan dan bijak mengambil
                Keputusan bebas daripada kawalan manusia (artificial
    Cth: PentiumIII, Pentium IV

    Lesson 3-5
    Usage of ICT in Daily Life
    *refer to exercise 3 and 4

    Lesson 6-7
    Computer Ethics and Legal Issues


    As offences linked to social networking sites increase 7,000%, the terrifying truth about criminals targeting your home

    Crimes linked to the Facebook have shot up. The social-networking site has facilitated some shocking, high-profile cases – from burglary to paedophilia and murder.
    This entry was posted in The Daily Mail Headlines and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.


    Guidelines - as a guidelines to computer users
    Moral standards - ethical behaviour is judge by moral standards
    Free to follow - computer users are free to follow or ignore the code ethics.
    No punishments - no punishment for anyone who violates ethics.
    Universals - Universals can be applied anywhere, all over the world.
    Produce ethical computer users - to produce ethical computer users.
    Immoral - not honouring computer ethics means ignoring the moral elements (immoral)
    Control - as a rule to control computer users.
    Judicial Standards - law is judge by judicial standards.
    Must follow - computers user must follow the regulations and law.
    Penalties, imprisonments and other punishments - penalties, imprisonments and other punishments for those who break the law.
    Depends on country - depends on country and state where the crime is committed
    Prevent misusing of computers - to prevent misuse of computers
    Crime - not honouring the law means committing a crime.

    Lesson 8
    Intellectual Property 

    Intellectual Property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists. These works are unique and have value in the market place. We are surrounded by things that are protected by IP. Your school bags, your shoes and even your socks are protected by Intellectual Property rights.
    examples of intellectual property rights

    Intellectual Property laws cover ideas, inventions, literary creations, unique names, business models, industrial processes, computer program codes and more.

    As businesses continue to expand globally, business owners must realize the importance of getting professional advice on how to establish and safeguard their intellectual property rights. These include :
    • Trademarks

    • Service marks
    • Trade/company names
    • Domain names
    • Geographical indications
    • Copyrights 
    • Patents
    Example : Protected by property law.
    trademark symbol

    Copyrights Symbols

    There are four types of Intellectual Property protection. They are patents for invention, trademarks for brand identity, designs for product appearance and copyright for material.

    1. Patents for inventions
    Utility, design or plant patents that protect inventions and improvements to
    existing inventions

    2. Trademarks for brand identity
    Words, names, symbols, devices and images that represent products, goods or services.

    3. Design for product appearance
    Literary and artistic material, music, films, sound recordings and road casts,
    including software and multimedia.

    4. Copyright for material
    The features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colors, shape, texture or material of the product itself or its ornamentation.

    Lesson 9
    Privacy In computer usage 

    Privacy in IT refers to data and information privacy.

    Ways Computer Technology Threaten Our Privacy:

    It is done through:
    electronic profile

    used to identify users by web casting, ecommerce and other web applications
    contain user information and are saved in the computer hard disk
    used by some websites to store passwords and track how regularly we visit a website, that’s how we become potential targets for web advertisers
    enable web sites to collect information about your online activities and store them for future use, then the collected details will be sold to any company that requests for it.

    Electronic Profile:
    electronic profile is the combining of data in a database that can be sold to the Internet by the company to the interested parties.
    this database is in a form such as magazine subscription or product warranty cards that had been filled by online subscribers.
    the information in electronic profile includes personal details such as your age, address and marital status.

    refers to a program that collects user information without the user’s knowledge.
    can enter computers, sneaking in like a virus.
    is a result of installing new programs.

    Lesson 10

     in progress...
    HaPpY LeArniNg.. :)  

1 comment:

  1. i like this note...boleh tunjuk contoh pelbagai yg kadang2 tak terfikir pon