What is ICT?
*refer to exercise 1
TIMELINE OF TECHNOLOGY
Evolution of Computers
- 1.0 Generasi Komputer
Terdapat 5 generasi komputer
1.Generasi Pertama (1942-1959)
-menggunakan tiub-tiub vakum sebagai komponen utamakomputer untuk memproses dan menyimpan maklumat.-saiz seperti mentol kecil.-cepat panas dan mudah terbakar.-beribu-ribu tiub vakum diperlukan pada satu masa.-fungsi komputer ini untuk membantu ahli sains menyelesaikanmasalah pengiraan trajektori dengan pantas dan tepat.-contoh: ENIAC dan EDSAC-menggunakan transistor dan diod-guna tenaga yang kurang dan kurang panas-lebih pantas dan berkuasa.-contoh: IBM, UNIVAC
3. Generasi Ketiga (1964-1970)-menggunakan teknologi litar bersepadu yang terdiri daripadaberibu-ribu transistor . (cip silikon)-komputer lebih praktikal kerana saiz lebih kecil, harga murah.
- 4. Generasi Keempat (1971-1990)
- wujudnya cip silikon yang lebih maju, yang mengandungiSehingga beratus ribu komponen transistor di dalamnya (VeryLarge scale integration,VSLI)-pemprosesan dapat dilakukan lebih pantas (berjuta bit sesaat)-pengenalan kepada CD ROM (read only memory)Cth: IBM 370, Apple I dan Apple II,
- 5. Generasi Kelima (1991 dan masa depan)-mempunyai lebih banyak unit pemproses yang berfungsiSerentak, ingatan lebih besar, menyelesaikan lebih banyakMasalah yang kompleks-dijangka mempunyai kepandaian tersendiri; mengesanKeadaan sekeliling melalui penglihatan dan bijak mengambilKeputusan bebas daripada kawalan manusia (artificialIntelligence)Cth: PentiumIII, Pentium IV
Usage of ICT in Daily Life
*refer to exercise 3 and 4
Computer Ethics and Legal Issues
Crimes linked to the Facebook have shot up. The social-networking site has facilitated some shocking, high-profile cases – from burglary to paedophilia and murder.
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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ETHICS AND LAW
EthicsLawGuidelines - as a guidelines to computer users
Moral standards - ethical behaviour is judge by moral standards
Free to follow - computer users are free to follow or ignore the code ethics.
No punishments - no punishment for anyone who violates ethics.
Universals - Universals can be applied anywhere, all over the world.
Produce ethical computer users - to produce ethical computer users.
Immoral - not honouring computer ethics means ignoring the moral elements (immoral)
Control - as a rule to control computer users.
Judicial Standards - law is judge by judicial standards.
Must follow - computers user must follow the regulations and law.
Penalties, imprisonments and other punishments - penalties, imprisonments and other punishments for those who break the law.
Depends on country - depends on country and state where the crime is committed
Prevent misusing of computers - to prevent misuse of computers
Crime - not honouring the law means committing a crime.
DEFINITIONIntellectual Property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists. These works are unique and have value in the market place. We are surrounded by things that are protected by IP. Your school bags, your shoes and even your socks are protected by Intellectual Property rights.
examples of intellectual property rightsINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWIntellectual Property laws cover ideas, inventions, literary creations, unique names, business models, industrial processes, computer program codes and more.INVENTIONS PROTECTED BY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWSAs businesses continue to expand globally, business owners must realize the importance of getting professional advice on how to establish and safeguard their intellectual property rights. These include :• Trademarks
• Service marks
• Trade/company names
• Domain names• Geographical indications• Copyrights
• PatentsExample : Protected by property law.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTIONThere are four types of Intellectual Property protection. They are patents for invention, trademarks for brand identity, designs for product appearance and copyright for material.1. Patents for inventionsUtility, design or plant patents that protect inventions and improvements toexisting inventions2. Trademarks for brand identityWords, names, symbols, devices and images that represent products, goods or services.3. Design for product appearanceLiterary and artistic material, music, films, sound recordings and road casts,including software and multimedia.4. Copyright for materialThe features of, in particular, the lines, contours, colors, shape, texture or material of the product itself or its ornamentation.
Privacy In computer usage
PRIVACY IN COMPUTER USAGEPrivacy in IT refers to data and information privacy.Ways Computer Technology Threaten Our Privacy:It is done through:• cookies• electronic profile• spywareCookies:• used to identify users by web casting, ecommerce and other web applications• contain user information and are saved in the computer hard disk• used by some websites to store passwords and track how regularly we visit a website, that’s how we become potential targets for web advertisers• enable web sites to collect information about your online activities and store them for future use, then the collected details will be sold to any company that requests for it.Electronic Profile:• electronic profile is the combining of data in a database that can be sold to the Internet by the company to the interested parties.• this database is in a form such as magazine subscription or product warranty cards that had been filled by online subscribers.• the information in electronic profile includes personal details such as your age, address and marital status.Spyware:• refers to a program that collects user information without the user’s knowledge.• can enter computers, sneaking in like a virus.• is a result of installing new programs.
in progress...HaPpY LeArniNg.. :)